In this easy-to-understand lesson, we summarize important notes from Pathoma’s Chapter 1. Cell Adaption and Injury. This lesson also includes main summary, note points, practice exam/test questions, and answers for fellow medical school students learning pathology. Happy learning!
Pathoma: Chapter 1. Cell Adaption & Injury – Medical School Pathology Summary and Notes
Hyperplasia vs Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy = involves gene activation, protein synthesis, and production of organelles
Hypertrophy = SIZE CHANGE
Hyperplasia = Number of cells CHANGE
Example of Hypertrophy = Cardiac hypertrophy
Example of Hyperplasia = Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)
What is an example of where hyperplasia CANNOT progress to cancer?
Answer: BPH or benign prostate hyperplasia (note: it has benign in it! so cannot become cancer)
Benign hyperplasia (Ex: BPH) vs Pathologic Hyperplasia
Pathologic Hyperplasia Examples: 1) Endometrial hyperplasia –> that can progress to dysplasia and cancer
What’s the mechanism by which cellular components are degraded?
Decrease in cell size occurs via: 1) ubiquitin proteosome degradation of cytoskeleton or 2) autophagy of cellular components
What type of epithelium is present in Barrett’s esophagus?
Answer: Columnar mucinous non-ciliated epithelium (A healthy esophagus is supposed to have squamous epithelium –> but barret’s = columnar epithelium)
What is Metaplasia?
Metaplasia = reprogramming of stem cells, REVERSIBLE with removal of the stressor
Example of metaplasia = GERD (because it is reversible once treated)
Is metaplasia reversible?
What is the mechanism of action of metaplasia?
Answer: Reprogramming of stem cells
Example of Metaplasia not predisposing to cancer? –> Apocrine metaplasia (Associated with fibrocystic changes of breast)
Can Metaplasia progress to dysplasia and cancer?
Answer: yes, metaplasia can progress to dysplasia and cancer. Examples include Barrett esophagus. EXCEPT apocrine metaplasia.
Corneal metaplasia = from lack of vitamin A
What is dysplasia?
Dysplasia = reversible with alleviation of inciting stress
If stress persists, dysplasia progresses to carcinoma
Carcinoma = Cancer = Irreversible
What is hypoplasia?
Hypoplasia = decrease of number of cells (lack of cells in an organ or tissue)–> Streak ovary in Turner syndrome
Hypoxia = low oxygen delivery to issue
Ischemia = decreased blood flow through an organ
In Budd-Chiari syndrome, there is a thrombosis of <<<HEPATIC VEIN>>>>
What is the most common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome?
Answer: Polycythemia vera
Hypoxemia vs Methemoglobinemia
Hypoxemia = Low partial pressure of O2 in blood
The earliest sign of carbon monoxide poisoning is…
Answer: Headache; other classic findings == cherry red appearance of skin , can lead to coma and death
Oxygen can only bind hemoglobin if the iron is in the Fec7::2+ state
Methemoglobinemia = Iron in heme is oxidized to Fe3+ –> which cannot bind O2
PaO2 normal // SaO2 decreased
Why are newborns particularly vulnerable to methemoglobinemia?
Answer: Low methemoglobin reductase activity
Chocolate-colored blood suggests:
Treatment for methemoglobinemia = IV methylene blue
MOA of IV Methylene blue = helps reduce Fe3+ back to –> Fe2+
What happens to the GI absorptive surface are in the setting of ischemia?
Initial phase of injury is reversible
-Hallmark = cellular swelling
-Leads to loss of microvilli, membrane blebbing, and swelling of RER
The decrease in protein synthesis which occurs during reversible cellular injury is due to:
Answer: RER swelling ⇒ Ribosome detachment}
The hallmark of irreversible cellular injury is:
Answer: Membrane damage}}
Where is the electron transport chain located?
Answer: Inner mitochondrial membrane}}
In the setting of irreversible cellular injury, proteolytic enzymes are released from the:
Check out these popular articles 🙂
Circulatory System: Blood Flow Pathway Through the Heart
Ectoderm vs Endoderm vs Mesoderm
Psychology 101 and the Brain: Stress – Definition, Symptoms, and Health Effects of the Fight-or-Flight Response
Circulatory System: Heart Structures and Functions
Ductus Arteriosus Vs Ductus Venosus Vs Foramen Ovale: Fetal Heart Circulation
Cardiac Arrhythmias: Definition, Types, Symptoms, and Prevention
Upper Vs Lower Respiratory System: Upper vs Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
Seven General Functions of the Respiratory System
Digestive System Anatomy: Diagram, Organs, Structures, and Functions
Kidney Embryology & Development: Easy Lesson
Nervous System 101 Study Guide Notes: Anatomy, Cerebrum vs Cerebellum, Brain Stem, Subcortical Cortex, Cerebral Cortex
Autocrine vs Paracrine vs Endocrine: What are the Differences?
Their Eyes Were Watching God: Mule Symbol
Shoulder Abduction Muscles: Medical Anatomy and USMLE
Cell Membrane Dynamics: Flippase vs Floppase vs Scramblase
Cell Membrane Fluidity: Factors That Influence and Increase the Cell Membrane Fluidity
Psychology 101: Crowd Psychology and The Theory of Gustave Le Bon
Introduction to Evolution: Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
Symbolism of Shoes in Dreams
Have a fantastic week!
Copyright © 2022 Moosmosis Organization: All Rights Reserved
All rights reserved. This essay first published on moosmosis.org or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever
without the express written permission of the publisher at moosmosis.org.
Please Like and Subscribe to our Email List at moosmosis.org, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube to support our open-access youth education initiatives! 🙂
ragi rava upma for kids
Biz journalist Leung hired as VP of content at ClickUp
Jogger Sets – With Love From Kat